of Journalism in the Philippines
With the invasion of the Japanese most publications were shut down except for the ones they used for their propaganda. DMHM was the first destroyed when Manila was bombed. It was only TVT which was left to operate however it was controlled and functioned as "solely for the benefit of the Japanese state" on October 12, 1942. The chain together with Ramon Roces' Liwayway was allowed to be published regularly but under censorship of the Japanese Imperial Army. The printing and distribution of the periodicals were transferred under Osaka Mainichi Publishing Company, established by Manila Sinbusya Corporation. The only papers that existed those times were that of TVT, Liwayway, Manila Shimbun, Shin-Seiki, Bicol Herald and Davao Nichi-Nichi, all under the control of the corporation.
With the side of the guerrillas they also came up with their own periodicals. These were typewritten or mimeographed paraphernalias on 8 ½ x 11-inch paper edited by journalists-guerillas. The publication served to empower the soldiers' and people's morale and aid as counter propaganda against the Japanese.